Classical and quantum computation with small space bounds
In this thesis, we introduce a new quantum Turing machine (QTM) model that supports general quantum operators, together with its pushdown, counter, and finite automaton variants, and examine the computational power of classical and quantum machines using small space bounds in many different cases. The main contributions are summarized below.
Firstly, we consider QTMs in the unbounded error setting: (i) in some cases of sublogarithmic space bounds, the class of languages recognized by QTMs is shown to be strictly larger than that of classical ones; (ii) in constant space bounds, the same result can still be obtained for restricted QTMs; (iii) the complete characterization of the class of languages recognized by realtime constant space nondeterministic QTMs is given.
Secondly, we consider constant space-bounded QTMs in the bounded error setting: (i) we introduce a new type of quantum and probabilistic finite automata (QFAs and PFAs, respectively,) with a special two-way input head which is not allowed to be stationary or move to the left but has the capability to reset itself to its starting position; (ii) the computational power of this type of quantum machine is shown to be superior to that of the probabilistic machine; (iii) based on these models, two-way PFAs and two-way classical-head QFAs are shown to be more succinct than two-way nondeterministic finite automata and their one-way variants; (iv) we also introduce PFAs and QFAs with postselection with their bounded error language classes, and give many characterizations of them.
Thirdly, the computational power of realtime QFAs augmented with a write-only memory is investigated by showing many simulation results for different kinds of counter automata.
Finally, some lower bounds of realtime classical Turing machines in order to recognize a nonregular language are shown to be tight.